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Updated: 2 weeks 6 days ago

Rat astrocytes reprogrammed into neurons

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
To date, it remains poorly understood whether astrocytes can be easily reprogrammed into neurons. Mash1 and Brn2 have been previously shown to cooperate to reprogram fibroblasts into neurons. Dr. Yongjun Wang and team from Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine in China found that Brn2 was expressed in astrocytes from 2-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, but Mash1 was not detectable. Thus, the researchers hypothesized that Mash1 alone could be used to reprogram astrocytes into neurons.
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Nerve injury and regeneration in critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
Critical illness polyneuropathy and critical illness myopathy are frequent complications of severe illness that involve sensorimotor axons and skeletal muscles, respectively. Differentiating critical illness polyneuropathy from Guillain-Barré syndrome, especially the axonal variants, may be difficult on purely clinical grounds, as Guillain-Barré syndrome is known for its variable atypical manifestations. Prof.
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Folate levels in young women reduced by UV exposure

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
Women who are pregnant or trying to fall pregnant and taking a folic acid supplement may be at risk of reducing their folate benefit through sun exposure, a new QUT study has warned.In a paper titled Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is associated with decreased folate status in women of childbearing age, published in the Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B:Biology, QUT researchers found UV exposure significantly depleted folate levels.
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Adeno-associated virus serotype-5 delivery to the rat trigeminal ganglion

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
During the 43rd Annual Meeting & Exhibition of the American Association for Dental Research, held in conjunction with the 38th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Dental Research, Lauren Roper, University of Texas - San Antonio / Health Science Center, San Antonio, presented research titled "Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype-5 Delivery to the Rat Trigeminal Ganglion.
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Whites act more aggressively after they play as black avatars

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
What happens when white video game players see themselves as black characters in a violent game?A new study suggests some disturbing answers: It makes the white players act more aggressively after the game is over, have stronger explicit negative attitudes toward blacks and display stronger implicit attitudes linking blacks to weapons.These results are the first to link avatar race in violent video games to later aggression, said Brad Bushman, co-author of the study and professor of communication and psychology at The Ohio State University.
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New technique to make muscle cells from human stem cells

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
As stem cells continue their gradual transition from the lab to the clinic, a research group at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has discovered a new way to make large concentrations of skeletal muscle cells and muscle progenitors from human stem cells.The new method, described in the journal Stem Cells Translational Medicine, could be used to generate large numbers of muscle cells and muscle progenitors directly from human pluripotent stem cells. These stem cells, such as embryonic (ES) or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, can be made into virtually any adult cell in the body.
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Bariatric surgery decreases risk of uterine cancer

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center report that bariatric surgery resulting in dramatic weight loss in formerly severely obese women reduces the risk of endometrial (uterine) cancer by 71 percent and as much as 81 percent if normal weight is maintained after surgery.Published in the April issue of Gynecologic Oncology, the official publication of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, the findings indicate obesity may be a modifiable risk factor for endometrial cancer, and bariatric surgery a viable option for eligible patients.
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Some patients with bladder defects and disease may benefit from stem cell findings

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
For the first time, scientists have succeeded in coaxing laboratory cultures of human stem cells to develop into the specialized, unique cells needed to repair a patient's defective or diseased bladder.
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Predicting prostate cancer survival by measuring circulating tumor cells

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
New research by USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center scientists demonstrates that measuring circulating tumor cells (CTCs) - the cells that spread cancer through the body - may be a better predictor of patient survival than the prostate specific antigen (PSA).The research was published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by a team led by Amir Goldkorn, M.D., assistant professor of medicine at USC Norris, part of Keck Medicine of USC.
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Potential for earlier diagnosis and personalized treatment of severe periodontitis with the help of gene expression signatures

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
Researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) have devised a new system for classifying periodontal disease based on the genetic signature of affected tissue, rather than on clinical signs and symptoms. The new classification system, the first of its kind, may allow for earlier detection and more individualized treatment of severe periodontitis, before loss of teeth and supportive bone occurs. The findings were published recently in the online edition of the Journal of Dental Research.
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In patients on anticoagulants, cold snare polypectomy effective for removal of small colorectal polyps

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
In recognition of National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month, GIE: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy has published a special issue for March on colorectal cancer. The issue includes a new study that compares cold snare polypectomy with conventional polypectomy for the removal of small colorectal polyps in anticoagulated patients. The study showed that delayed bleeding requiring hemostasis (stoppage of bleeding) occurred significantly less often after cold snare polypectomy than during conventional polypectomy despite continuation of anticoagulants.
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Characteristics of lung cancers arising in germline EGFR T790M mutation carriers and relationship to smoking status

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
Two studies are providing new insight into germline epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation in familial non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The findings suggest the need for tailored approaches for early detection and treatment, as well as for genetic testing to identify carriers."These studies now solidify the fact that routine clinical management of lung cancer now has to include the awareness of this inherited cancer syndrome," wrote David P. Carbone, MD, PhD, President-Elect of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), in an editorial.
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Even subconcussive injury may lead to neuropathological changes

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
A standard experimental model of concussion in rats causes substantial brain damage - but no behavioral changes comparable to those seen in patients with concussion, reports a study in the April issue of Neurosurgery, official journal of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. The journal is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a part of Wolters Kluwer Health.The results highlight the "disconnect" between preclinical and clinical studies of concussion, according to the report by Dr. Charles L. Rosen of West Virginia University, Morgantown, and colleagues.
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New method can diagnose pancreatic cancer

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
Pancreatic cancer is often detected at a late stage, which results in poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Researchers at The Sahlgrenska Academy have now developed a method which identifies the cancer's visible precursors with 97% certainty. The method, which is expected to aid in the early discovery of the cancer as well as minimize the risk of unnecessary surgery, may be introduced in patient care within five years.
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Link between depression and obesity in adolescent girls

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
Depression and obesity have long been associated, but how they relate over time is less clear. New research from a Rutgers University-Camden professor shows that adolescent females who experience one of the disorders are at a greater risk for the other as they get older."Adolescence is a key developmental period for both obesity and depression, so we thought it significant to look at the onset of these disorders at an early age," says Naomi Marmorstein, an associate professor of psychology at Rutgers-Camden.
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Structure decoded of cholesterol transporter

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
The word "cholesterol" is directly linked in most people's minds with high-fat foods, worrying blood test results, and cardiovascular diseases. However, despite its bad reputation, cholesterol is essential to our wellbeing: It stabilizes cell membranes and is a raw material for the production of different hormones in the cell's power plants - the mitochondria. Now, for the first time, scientists in Gottingen have solved the high-resolution structure of the molecular transporter TSPO, which introduces cholesterol into mitochondria.
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Novel antibacterial orthodontic bracket cement developed

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
At the 43rd Annual Meeting & Exhibition of the American Association for Dental Research (AADR), held in conjunction with the 38th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Dental Research, Mary Anne Sampaio de Melo, from the University of Maryland, Baltimore, presented a research study titled "Antibacterial Orthodontic Cement Containing a Quaternary Ammonium Monomer Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate."Demineralized lesions in enamel around orthodontic brackets are caused by acids from biofilm accumulation.
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New regulatory mechanisms of cell migration uncovered

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 09:00
A study by Sofia J. Araujo, a Ramon y Cajal researcher with the Morphogenesis in Drosophila lab at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB), elucidates the genetic regulation of cell migration. Published in the scientific journal Plos One, the research is part of the thesis work performed by Elisenda Buti, first author of the article.Cell migration is highly coordinated and occurs in processes such as embryonic development, wound healing, the formation of new blood vessels, and tumour cell invasion.
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Research shows fat mass in cells expands with disuse

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 08:00
Over 35 percent of American adults and 17 percent of American children are considered obese, according to the latest survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Associated with diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and even certain types of cancer, obesity places a major burden on the health care system and economy. It's usually treated through a combination of diet, nutrition, exercise, and other techniques.To understand how obesity develops, Prof. Amit Gefen, Dr. Natan Shaked and Ms.
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Two-year results of resin infiltration effects in a caries-active environment

Tue, 25/03/2014 - 08:00
During the 43rd Annual Meeting & Exhibition of the American Association for Dental Research, held in conjunction with the 38th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Dental Research, Mathilde C. Peters, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA, presented research titled "Resin Infiltration Effects in a Caries-Active Environment - 2 Year Results."The objective of this study was to compare carious lesion changes after resin infiltration of approximal non-cavitated lesions in a high caries risk population after two years.
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