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There is evidence that the brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease begin many years before clinical symptoms like memory loss and mental decline emerge. With this in mind, biomarkers of these changes could be valuable ways to identify individuals at the "preclinical" stage, which is early enough for brain-preserving treatment to be effective.
Past studies have claimed that vitamin D may reduce the risk of heart disease, bone fractures and even depression. Now, new research suggests that breast cancer patients with high levels of the vitamin in their blood are twice as likely to survive the disease than patients with low levels.The researchers, led by Prof. Cedric F. Garland of the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, recently published their findings in the journal Anticancer Research.
Each year, more than 300 million individuals are infected with malaria, a life-threatening blood disease caused by a parasite transmitted to humans by mosquitos. Whether malaria cases could be affected by warming climates has been a topic of debate, but now, researchers present the first evidence that the disease climbs to higher elevations during warmer years.The study, published in the journal Science, suggests future warming climate trends may prompt an increase in malaria cases, particularly in highly populated areas of Africa and South America that are at higher elevations.
A new report published on Tuesday 4 March 2014 by Mind and the McPin Foundation brings together the experiences of mental health charities and user groups from across the world for the first time. 'Driving Change' is based on the experiences of 19 mental health non government organisations (MHNGOs) from as far afield as Uganda to Australia. It highlights the incredible job that MHNGOs do in supporting people with mental health problems, sometimes in countries where shocking human rights violations such as chaining or stoning someone with a mental health problem are still commonplace.
Eating fish in amounts comparable to those of people living in Japan seems to impart a protective factor that wards off heart disease, according to an international study funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and led by the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health.Middle-aged Japanese men living in Japan had lower incidence of coronary artery calcification, a predictor of heart disease, than middle-aged white men living in the United States, likely due to the significantly higher consumption of omega-3 fatty acids found in fish.
The Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) has been awarded more than £380,000* from the Department of Health to develop a unique online information 'hub' to help GPs improve the support and services they provide for carers. The hub will collate all the information GPs, primary healthcare staff, practice teams, commissioners and Health & Wellbeing Board representatives might need to identify and support carers, bringing together RCGP resources as well as signposting to external resources. Health professionals will be able to use it free of charge.
In the past five years, the number of lung transplantations carried out has increased by about 20%. In the end stage of various lung diseases, transplantation is the last remaining option for treatment, and it can both prolong life and improve its quality. Marc Hartert and colleagues have studied how patients do after a lung transplant, and their review appears in the current edition of the Deutsches Ärzteblatt International.What they found is that deaths in the 90 days after an operation for lung transplantation have gone down over the past 25 years from 19.4% to 10%.
A chemical found in plants could reduce the symptoms of the rare muscle disease, spinal muscular atrophy, which leaves children with little or no control of movement in their lower limbs. Scientists at Keele University have contributed to an international study led by the University of Edinburgh showing that a plant pigment called quercetin - found in some fruits, vegetables, herbs and grains - could help to prevent the damage to nerves associated with this childhood form of motor neuron disease.
Researchers show that infecting just one tumor with a virus could boost the systemic effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy
A Ludwig Cancer Research study suggests that the clinical efficacy of checkpoint blockade, a powerful new strategy to harness the immune response to treat cancers, might be dramatically improved if combined with oncolytic virotherapy, an investigational intervention that employs viruses to destroy tumors.
Atypical development can be detected as early as 12 months of age among the siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder, a study published by researchers with the UC Davis MIND Institute and UCLA has found. Published online in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the study found that close to half of the younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) develop in an atypical fashion, with 17 percent developing ASD and another 28 percent showing delays in other areas of development or behavior.
Uncontrolled cell growth and division is a hallmark of cancer. Now a research project led by the University of Dundee has provided the most complete description to date of the gene activity which takes place as human cells divide. Researchers have managed to gather data which details the behaviour of protein molecules encoded by over 6000 genes in cancer cells, as they move through the cell cycle.
Public Health England launches toolkit to manage hospital infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria
Experts at Public Health England (PHE) have launched a toolkit for hospitals to detect, manage and control antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). The use of many different types of antibiotics in hospitals creates evolutionary pressures that encourage the development and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria. This process is a natural consequence of the use of antibiotics and cannot be stopped, only managed. Enterobacteriaceae are a group of bacteria carried in the gut of all humans and animals, which is perfectly normal.
The world's cities will soon have the opportunity to be officially designated "diabetes aware". They will be challenged to show that their public services and businesses encourage healthy lifestyles for people with diabetes and those at risk.The new scheme is being created by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the European Connected Health Alliance (ECHAlliance) who plan to launch it on World Diabetes Day, 14 November 2014. IDF and the ECHAlliance want to create a global network of "diabetes aware" cities using mobile health tools to promote diabetes awareness and support.
Scientists have thrown light on the genetic mutation that causes a particularly severe genetic disease (ARVC5) on the Canadian island Newfoundland in 2008. At first, they assumed that it was a genetic anomaly limited to this Canadian province. In 2010, Milting's team - and at the same time a team of researchers from Copenhagen - proved that the "Newfoundland mutation" did also occur in Europe. Today, the scientists know about affected families in Germany, Denmark, the USA and Canada. They all share common ancestors, as was demonstrated through genetic analysis.
Recent reports warn about a link between eating red and processed meat and the risk of developing cancer in the gut. These reports have resulted in new nutritional recommendations that advise people to limit their intake of red and processed meats. A recent perspective paper, authored by 23 scientists, published in the latest issue of journal Meat Science underlines the uncertainties in the scientific evidence and points to further research needed to resolve these issues and improve the foundation for future recommendations on the intake of red meat.
How do we perceive our vulnerability to terrorism? Is it through our sense of place, such as urban neighbourhoods where we live or offices where we work (as evidence has previously suggested); or is it actually through mobility, when we are travelling between places, the contradictory notion of 'placelessness'? Recent research published in Urban Geography addresses this very question.
Drug treatments for diseases that cause blindness could be delivered by eye drops instead of uncomfortable and costly eye injections, say UK researchers. The team reports how it tested this innovation on animals in the nanotechnology journal Small.The breakthrough could make a huge difference to the millions of people worldwide who, like author Stephen King and actress Dame Judi Dench, suffer from blindness-causing diseases like age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which affects 20% of people over the age of 75.
Researchers from New Zealand's University of Otago studying 3000-year-old skeletons from the oldest known cemetery in the Pacific Islands are casting new light on the diet and lives of the enigmatic Lapita people, the likely ancestors of Polynesians.
New findings reveal how a mutation, a change in the genetic code that causes neurodegeneration, alters the shape of DNA, making cells more vulnerable to stress and more likely to die.The particular mutation, in the C9orf72 gene, is the most common cause for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease), and frontotemporal degeneration (FTD), the second most common type of dementia in people under 65.This research by Jiou Wang, Ph.D.
A novel approach to cancer immunotherapy - strategies designed to induce the immune system to attack cancer cells - may provide a new and cost-effective weapon against some of the most deadly tumors, including ovarian cancer and mesothelioma. Investigators from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center report in the Journal of Hematology & Oncology that a protein engineered to combine a molecule targeting a tumor-cell-surface antigen with another protein that stimulates several immune functions prolonged survival in animal models of both tumors.