Radiation and chemotherapies could be more effective in treating the most common and deadly of all cancers by eliminating Mcl-1
Researchers at the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) have discovered a protein, Mcl-1, that helps enable one of the most common and deadly types of cancer to survive radiation and drug treatments.Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) makes up about 85 percent of the nearly 160,000 Americans expected to die this year from lung cancer, which by far kills more patients than any other type of cancer; accounting for more than 1 in 4 cancer deaths in the U.S. annually. The 5-year survival rate for advanced NSCLC is less than 10 percent.
Two recent genetic studies expand the list of genes involved with body fat and body mass index, and their connection to major Western health problems: heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. One study showed that higher body mass index (BMI) caused harmful effects on the risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and inflammation, while another study found gene signals linked to higher levels of body fat metrics, without showing causality."These findings are highly relevant to the obesity pandemic in the United States and many other countries," said geneticist Brendan J.
A recent analysis conducted by investigators from the Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University has found that frequent experiences of racism were associated with a higher risk of obesity among African American women. The findings, which currently appear online in the American Journal of Epidemiology, found the relationship between racism and obesity was strongest among women who reported consistently high experiences of racism over a 12-year period.
After a decade of debate, a clear picture of a controversial protein that helps regulate heart contractions
Brandeis University researchers have unlocked a controversial structure in heart cells responsible for regulating heart contractions.For years, scientists have debated how many KCNE1 proteins are required to build a potassium ion channel, theorizing anywhere between one and 14. Now, Brandeis University researchers found that these channels are built with two E1s. Understanding the construction of this channel is key to understanding life-threatening heart conditions, such as arrhythmias, and developing drugs to threat those conditions.
Stem cells from Alzheimer's patients offer model and drug-discovery platform for early-onset form of disease
Harvard stem cell scientists have successfully converted skins cells from patients with early-onset Alzheimer's into the types of neurons that are affected by the disease, making it possible for the first time to study this leading form of dementia in living human cells. This may also make it possible to develop therapies far more quickly and accurately than before.
In the largest, most comprehensive, nationwide study to examine the prevalence of allergies from early childhood to old age, scientists from the National Institutes of Health report that allergy prevalence is the same across different regions of the United States, except in children 5 years and younger."Before this study, if you would have asked 10 allergy specialists if allergy prevalence varied depending on where people live, all 10 of them would have said yes, because allergen exposures tend to be more common in certain regions of the U.S.," said Darryl Zeldin, M.D.
Rate of change in the thickness of the brain's cortex is an important factor associated with a person's change in IQ, according to a collaborative study by scientists in five countries including researchers at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital - The Neuro, at McGill University and the McGill University Health Centre. The study has potentially wide-ranging implications for the pedagogical world and for judicial cases in which the defendant's IQ score could play a role in determining the severity of the sentence.
Only about 37% of babies around the world are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The benefits of breastfeeding for both infants and mothers are well-established. The effectiveness of different types of interventions for promoting exclusive breastfeeding in high-income countries is the focus of a Review article published in Breastfeeding Medicine, the official journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available on the Breastfeeding Medicine website.
Diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is not easy or straightforward: it can often be hard to distinguish from other diseases. Currently, clinicians have to rely on medical history and neurological examination, as there are no reliable radiologic techniques to aid in diagnosis. Now, new research suggests a special type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which shows high-resolution, detailed views of the part of the brain affected by Parkinson's, may help to detect the disease earlier.
Preserving a fallopian tube following an ectopic pregnancy seems like it would favor a woman's fertility prospects, right?A new study from Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center looked at pregnancy outcomes in regards to the two surgical treatments for ectopic pregnancy - salpingectomy, in which the affected fallopian tube is removed, or salpingotomy, in which the tube is preserved.The aim of the study, said co-author Tamer Yalcinkaya, M.D.
Prenatal exposure to nicotine could manifest as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children born a generation later, according to a new study by Florida State University College of Medicine researchers.Professors Pradeep G. Bhide and Jinmin Zhu have found evidence that ADHD associated with nicotine can be passed across generations. In other words, your child's ADHD might be an environmentally induced health condition inherited from your grandmother, who may have smoked cigarettes during pregnancy a long time ago.
As we age, many of us may struggle to remember simple things, such as directions or what film we watched last night. But researchers from the University of Florida say they have discovered a drug that has the potential to reverse mild cognitive decline among older adults.This is according to a study recently published in the Journal of Neuroscience.The research team, including Prof. Jennifer Bizon of the university's Department of Neuroscience, explains that the type of memory responsible for the recall of day-to-day items is known as the "working memory.
It is standard for adults and children who undergo cataract surgery to be implanted with an artificial lens in their eye. But a clinical trial funded by the National Eye Institute suggests that the ideal treatment for infants should be surgery followed by the use of contact lenses for several years, and then an eventual lens implant.A cataract is a cloud on the lens of the eye. Removal of cataracts involves a quick, safe surgical procedure, which is usually followed by the artificial lens - called an intraocular lens (IOL) - being implanted.
Intravaginal ring providing dual protection against HIV and pregnancy is first of its kind to enter a clinical trial
Women's reproductive health may never be the same, thanks to Northwestern University biomedical engineer Patrick Kiser and his first-of-its-kind intravaginal ring that reliably delivers an antiretroviral drug and a contraceptive for months.Kiser's one ring delivers two drugs that do three important things: the device is designed to protect against HIV and herpes as well as unwanted pregnancy. It will be the first device with the potential to offer this protection to be tested in women.
Drug protects mice against malaria brain damage and raises levels of a neuroprotective factor in humans
Cerebral malaria is a serious complication of infection with the malaria parasite, affecting approximately one in a thousand children in areas where malaria is common. Many of the patients die, and among those who survive, about a third have lasting cognitive and neurological disabilities, including epilepsy and learning disorders. A study published in PLOS Pathogens shows that a known drug can prevent brain damage in a cerebral malaria mouse model and eliminate subsequent neurological deficits.
Hearing impairment (HI) is associated with depression among American adults of all ages, especially women and individuals younger than 70 years. Depression and HI are associated with personal, societal and economic burdens. However, the relationship between depression and HI has not been reported in a national sample of U.S. adults.The authors used data on adults 18 years or older (n=18,318) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
The World Health Organization has issued draft guidelines calling for a reduction of daily sugar intake to 5% of total daily calories in order to tackle public health problems, such as obesity and tooth decay.In recent years, there has been increasing concern regarding the consumption of "free" sugars. These are defined as sugars that are added to foods by manufacturers - such as glucose, fructose and sucrose - and sugars that are naturally present in fruit juices, fruit concentrates, syrups and honey.
Analyzing data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey, a new study published in JAMA Pediatrics debates whether e-cigarettes could be encouraging the use of conventional cigarettes in adolescents.Recently, Medical News Today ran a feature examining the boom in popularity of e-cigarettes, which some experts believe will become more widely used than conventional cigarettes by the next decade.In that feature, we also debated the conflicting data on e-cigarettes from scientific studies and looked at how these - currently unregulated - products might be controlled in the future.
Telling adolescents to get enough sleep can sometimes be a tall order, but a new study in The Journal of Pediatrics reminds us just how important a good night's sleep can be. It suggests obese youths who do not get adequate sleep may increase their risk for developing diabetes, heart disease and stroke.The researchers, from the University of Michigan Health System and Baylor University, say the combination of inadequate sleep and obesity has been linked to raised risks of cardiovascular diseases in adults and younger children.
In a small trial, researchers have successfully used gene therapy to boost the immune system of 12 patients with HIV to resist infection. They removed the patients' white blood cells to edit a gene in them, then infused them back into the patients. Some of the patients who showed reduced viral loads were off HIV drugs completely.In fact, one of the patients showed no detectable trace of HIV at all after therapy.